I-Urolithin A, B kunye ne-Urolithin i-8-Methyl Ether
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Intshayelelo kwi-Urolithins

I-Urolithins ziyimetabolism yesibini ye-ellagic acid ethathwe kwi-ellagitannins. Ebantwini i-ellagitannins iguqulwa yi-gut microflora ibe yi-ellagic acid eguqulwa i-urolithins A, urolithin B, urolithin C kunye ne-urolithin D kumathumbu amakhulu.

I-urolithin eyandulelayo, i-ellagic acid kunye ne-ellagitannins, yenzeka ngokwemvelo kwezinye izinto zokutya ezinjengepomegranate, i-guavas, iti, iipecans, amandongomane, kunye namajikijolo anje ngetrawberry, raspberries ezimnyama kunye namajikijolo amnyama. Ii-urolithins zifumaneka kwi-plasma njenge-glucuronide kunye ne-sulfate conjugates kwiindawo ezigxinisekileyo ezisezantsi malunga ne-0.2 ukuya ku-20.μM.

Urolithin A. (UA) yeyona metabolite ixhaphakileyo yeellagitannins. Nangona kunjalo, i-urolithin A ayaziwa ukuba ivele ngokwemvelo kuyo nayiphi na imithombo yokutya.

I-Urolithin B (UB) yi-metabolite eninzi eveliswa esiswini ngotshintsho lwe-ellagitannins. Urolithin B Imveliso yokugqibela emva kokuba zonke ezinye izinto ze-urolithin ezifunyenwe zibekiwe. I-Urolithin B ifumaneka kumchamo njenge-urolithin B glucuronide.

I-Urolithin i-8-Methyl Ether Yimveliso ephakathi ngexesha lokuqulunqwa kwe-Urolithin A. Yinto ebalulekileyo yesibini ye-metabolite ye-ellagitannin kwaye ineepropathi ze-antioxidant kunye ne-anti-inflammatory.

Mi-echanism of isenzo se-urolithin A no-B

I-Urolithin A induces mitophagy

I-Mitophagy yindlela enye ye-autophagy enceda ukuphelisa i-mitochondrial eyonakeleyo ekusebenzeni kwayo ngokugqibeleleyo. I-Autophagy ibhekisa kwinkqubo ngokubanzi apho iziqulatho ze-cytoplasmic ziye zonakaliswe kwaye ngenxa yoko ziphinde zisebenze kwakhona ngelixa i-mitophagy kukuwohloka nokuphinda kusetyenziswe i-mitochondria.

Ngexesha lokuguga ukuhla kwe-autophagy yenye yezinto ezikhokelela ekunciphiseni komsebenzi we-mitochondrial. Ukongeza, uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative lungakhokelela nakwi-autophagy ephantsi. Urolithin A. ube nakho ukukhupha i-mitochondria eyonakalisiweyo ngokusebenzisa i-autophagy ekhethiweyo.

Iipropathi ze-antioxidant

Uxinzelelo lwe-Oxidative lwenzeka xa kukho ukungalingani phakathi kweeradicals simahla kunye ne-antioxidant emzimbeni. Ezi radicals zasimahla ezixhaphakileyo zihlala zinxulunyaniswa nezifo ezininzi ezinganyangekiyo ukuphazamiseka kwentliziyo, isifo seswekile kunye nomhlaza.

I-Urolithins A kunye ne-B zibonisa iziphumo ze-antioxidant ngokwazi kwazo ukunciphisa i-radicals yasimahla kwaye ikakhulu amanqanaba e-oxygen asebenzayo (i-ROS) kunye nokuthintela i-lipid peroxidation kwiindidi ezithile zeseli.

Ukongeza, i-urolithins iyakwazi ukuthintela i-enzymes ezithile ze-oxidizing, kubandakanya i-monoamine oxidase A kunye ne-tyrosinase.

Iipropathi ezichasene nokuvuvukala

Usulelo yinkqubo yendalo apho imizimba yethu ilwa nayo nayiphi na into ewile efana nosulelo, ukwenzakala, kunye neentsholongwane. Nangona kunjalo, usulelo olungapheliyo lunokuba yingozi emzimbeni njengoko oku kunxulumana neziphazamiso ezahlukeneyo ezifana nesifuba, imiba yentliziyo kunye nomhlaza. Usulelo olungapheliyo lungenzeka ngenxa yokuvuvukala okukhulu emzimbeni, usulelo okanye nokuba ne-radicals yasimahla emzimbeni.

I-Urolithins A no-B zibonisa iipropathi ezichasene nokuvuvukala ngokuthintela imveliso ye-nitric oxide. Ngokubanzi bathintela i-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) engafanelekanga yeprotheni kunye ne-mRNA expression enoxanduva lokuvuvukala.

Iziphumo ezichasene negciwane

Iintsholongwane kubandakanya isifo, iintsholongwane kunye neentsholongwane zenzeka ngokwemvelo kwindawo yomzimba. Nangona kunjalo, ii-virus ezincinci ezibizwa ngokuba ziintsholongwane zinokubangela izifo ezosulelayo ezinjengomkhuhlane, imasisi kunye neMalariya.

I-Urolithin A kunye ne-B ziyakwazi ukubonisa imisebenzi ye-antimicrobial ngokuthintela uvakalelo lwe-quorum. Ukuziva ngentsimbi yethorum yindlela yokunxibelelana ngebhaktiriya eyenza ukuba iibacteria zibone kwaye zilawule iinkqubo ezinxulumene nokusuleleka ezinje nge virulence kunye motility.

Ukuthintela i-protein glycation

I-Glycation ibhekisa ekuncamathisweni kwe-non-enzymatic yeswekile kwi-lipid okanye kwiproteni. Luphawu oluphambili lwe-biomarker kwiswekile kunye nokunye ukuphazamiseka kunye nokwaluphala.

I-glycation ephezulu yeeprotheyini sisiphumo sesibini se-hyperglycemia inendima enkulu kwizifo ezinxulumene nentliziyo kunye nesifo seswekile kunye nesifo sika-Alzheimer's.

I-Urolithin A kunye ne-B zinepropathi ezichasene neglycative ezixhomekeke kwidosi ezizimeleyo kwimisebenzi yazo ye-antioxidant.

I-Urolithin A, B kunye ne-Urolithin i-8-Methyl Ether

Izibonelelo ze-Urolithin A no-B

I-Urolithins ineziphumo ezininzi ezilungileyo ezixhaswa bubungqina obusekwe kuphando lwe-anti-immune, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, kunye nepropathi ye-antimicrobial. Urolithin Izibonelelo zihlobene kakhulu ne Izibonelelo ze-urolithin B. Apha ngezantsi kukho ezinye izibonelelo ezixelwe kwi-urolithins;

Urolithin Izibonelelo

(1) Inokwandisa ixesha lobomi

I-Urolithin A induces mitophagy ngokukhetha ngokususa i-mitochondria eyonakalisiweyo. Oku kukwaqinisekisa ukuphinda kusetyenziswe imitochondria ukuze isebenze kakuhle. I-Mitochondria ihlala yonakala kunye nobudala kwaye ngenxa yoxinzelelo. Ukukhupha i-mitochondria eyonakalisiweyo idlala indima ekwandiseni ixesha lokuphila.

Kuphononongo lweentshulube, urolithin Isongezelelo esilawulwa kwi-50 µM ukusuka kwinqanaba leqanda de kwaba sekufeni kufunyanwe ukuba bandise ixesha labo lobomi ngama-45.4%.

Kolunye uphononongo olwenziwe ngonyaka ka-2019 kusetyenziswa i-senescent fibroblasts yabantu, urolithin Isongezelelo kwafunyanwa ukubonakalisa amandla okulwa nokwaluphala. Ikwazile ukunyusa uhlobo lwe-1 collagen expression kunye nokunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwe-matrix metalloproteinase 1.

Isifundo esincinci esincinci somntu sibonisa ukuba i-UA yayikwazi ukuphucula ukusebenza kwe-mitochondrial kunye nethambo kwimpilo yabantu abadala xa ilawulwa ngomlomo kwi-500-1000mg kwisithuba seeveki ezine.

(2) Nceda unqande umhlaza webele

Ii-urolithins kunye nomanduleli wazo, i-ellagitannins, zinepropathi ezichasene nomhlaza. Bayakwazi ukuthintela ukwanda komhlaza weseli ngokubanjwa komjikelo weseli kunye nokuphembelela i-apoptosis. I-Apoptosis ibhekisa ekufeni kwesicwangcisiweyo apho umzimba uphelisa umhlaza-kunye neeseli ezosulelekileyo.

Kuphononongo lweempuku zifakwe kwiiseli zomhlaza zomntu, ii-ellagitannins metabolites (i-Urolithin A) zifunyenwe zithintela ukukhula komhlaza webele. Uphononongo luye lwaxela ukugcwala okuphezulu kweetabolites kwi-gland ye-Prostate, colon kunye nethambo lesisu.

(3) Uphuculo lwengqondo

I-Urolithin A iyakwazi ukukhusela i-neurons ekufeni kwaye inokubangela neurogeneis ngokusebenzisa ukuchasana nokuvuvukala.

Kuphononongo lweempuku kunye nokukhubazeka kwememori, i-urolithin A yafunyanwa ukulungiswa kokukhubazeka kwengqondo kunye nokukhusela i-neurons kwi-apoptosis. Oku kucebisa ukuba iAA ingasetyenziswa kunyango lwesifo iAlzheimer's (AD).

(4) Ukuchasana nokukhuluphala okunokwenzeka

Uphando lubonisa ukuba i-ellagitannins iyakwazi ukuthintela ukuqokelelwa kwe-lipid kunye neziphawuli ze-adipogenic ezinje ngeprotein yokuphendula ukukhula 2 kunye ne-protein yokuqinisa ukubopha ngomjikelezo weseli.

I-Urolithin A ifunyenwe ngokuthe ngqo ukuphucula uvakalelo lwe-insulin ke ngoko kuthintela ukukhula koxinzelelo.

Kuphononongo lweempuku ezineengxaki zokutyeba kakhulu, i-urolithin Isongezelelo safunyanwa ukukhusela ukutyeba okubangelwa kukutya kakhulu kunye nokuchaphazeleka kwe-metabolic kumagundane. Uphononongo lubonise ukuba unyango lwe-UA lwenyusa inkcitho yamandla ngenxa yoko ubunzima bomzimba obuphantsi.

Izibonelelo ze-Urolithin B

Urolithin B izongezelelo Ukwafumana izibonelelo ezahlukeneyo zempilo kwaye uninzi lwazo lufana ne-urolithin A izibonelelo.

(1) Ukuchasa umhlaza

Iimpawu ezichasene nokuvuvukala kwe-urolithin B ziyenza ukhetho olululo lokulwa nomhlaza. Abanye abaphandi baxele ngezi zinto zinokwenzeka kwi-fibroblasts, microphages nakwiseli ze-endothelial.

Izifundo ziye zaxela ukuba i-UB ibangela iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zomhlaza ezifana ne-Prostate, ikholoni kunye nomhlaza webala.

Kuphononongo olubandakanya iiseli zomhlaza wesibeleko yabantu, ii-ellagitannins, i-ellagic acid kunye ne-urolithins A no-B ziye zavavanywa ukuba nakho kwazo ukulwa nomhlaza. Baxela ukuba zonke iindlela zonyango zazikwazi ukuthintela ukukhula kweeseli zomhlaza. Bezithintela iiseli zomhlaza ukuba zande ngokubakho komjikelo weseli ngokubanjwa ngamanqanaba ahlukeneyo nangokuphembelela i-apoptosis.

(2) Inganceda ukulwa noxinzelelo lwe-oxidative

I-Urolithin B ineempawu ezintle ze-antioxidant ngokunciphisa amanqanaba e-oksijini asebenzayo kunye ne-lipid peroxidation kwiindidi ezithile zeseli. Amanqanaba aphezulu eROS ahambelana neziphazamiso ezininzi ezifana nesifo seAlzheimer.

Kwisifundo esineeseli ze-neuronal ezichanekileyo koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, ukongezwa kweurolithin B kunye ne-urolithin A kwafunyanwa ukukhusela iiseli ekuchaseni i-oxidation kungoko ke kwandise ukusinda kweseli.

(3) I-Urolithin B ekuphuculeni inkumbulo

I-Urolithin b iye yanikelwa ingxelo yokuphucula ukubangaba kwegazi. Oku kuphucula ukusebenza kwengqondo.

Izifundo zibonise ukuba i-urolithin B inokuba ngumthombo wememori onokuphucula ukusebenza kwengqondo ngokubanzi.

(4) Ikhusela ukulahleka kwemisipha

Ukuphulukana nemisipha kunokwenzeka ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukeneyo njengokuphazamiseka, ukwaluphala kunye nokusilela kweprotein ekutyeni. Amanyathelo aliqela okumisa, ukunciphisa kunye okanye okungcono ukunqanda ukulahleka kwemisipha kubandakanya, ukuzivocavoca, iziyobisi kunye ne-amino acid kunye neep polyphenols ezinokuqeshwa.

I-urolithins inokuhlelwa njengee-polyphenols kunye nendima yokudlala ekuthinteleni ukulahleka kwemisipha ngokwenza i-synthesis yemisipha yeprotein kunye nokunciphisa ukutsala.

Kwisifundo kunye neempuku, ii-supplements ze-Urolithin B ezilawulwa ixesha elide zifunyenwe ukuphucula ukukhula kwemisipha yazo njengoko izihlunu zibonwe ukuba zikhula.

(5) I-Urolithin B ilwa ngokuchasene nokuvuvukala

I-Urolithin B ineepropathi ezichasene nosulelo ngokunciphisa uninzi lwophawu losulelo.

Kuphononongo lwamagundwane ane-renal fibrosis eyandisiweyo, i-urolithin B yafunyanwa ukuze kulungiswe ukwenzakala kwezintso. Iphuculise umsebenzi we-renal, i-morphology yezintso kunye nokunciphisa uphawu lokulimala kwe-renal. Oku kubonisa ukuba i-UB ibikwazi ukunciphisa ukusuleleka kwezintso.

(6) Izibonelelo ze-synergistic ze-urolithin A no-B

Iziphumo zeSynergistic ziye zachazwa ngokudibeneyo kwe-urolithin A no-B kumsebenzi wengqondo kunye nomthamo. Olu phando luye lwadibanisa ukuba le indibaniselwano ingasetyenziselwa ukunyanga okanye ukuthintela ukuphazamiseka okubangelwa kukuwohloka kwengqondo okufana nexhala okanye isifo se-Alzheimer's.

Ezinye izibonelelo ezihambelana ne-urolithins zezi;

  • Neuroprotection
  • I-Ameliorates metabolic syndrome

Imithombo yokutya ye-Urolithin A no-B

I-Urolithins ayaziwa ukuba ifunyenwe ngokwemvelo kuyo nayiphi na imithombo yokutya. Ziyimveliso yenguqu ye-ellagic acids evela kwi-ellagitannins. I-Ellagitannins iguqulwa ibe yi-ellagic acids yi-gut micobiota kwaye i-ellagic acid iguqulwe kwakhona kwi-metabolites yayo (i-urolithins) kumathumbu amakhulu.

I-Ellagitannins ivela ngokwemvelo kwimithombo yokutya efana neerharnati, amajikijolo kubandakanywa ama-sitrobheli, iidrawberry, ilifu kunye namajikijolo, iidiliya zemiscadine, iialmonds, i-guavas, iti kunye namantongomane anjenge-walnuts kunye ne-chestnuts kunye neebhiya ezineminyaka engama-oki umzekelo zewayini ebomvu kunye neWhiskey evela imitya ye-oki.

Singaphetha ke ngoku ngokuthi urolithin ukutya kunye nokutya kwe-urolithin B kukutya okune-ellagitannin. Kubalulekile ukuphawula ukuba i-ellagitannin bioavailability is limited kakhulu ngelixa i-metabolites zayo zesekethe (urolithins) zifumaneka ngokulula.

I-urolithins excretion kunye nemveliso yahluka ngokubanzi phakathi kwabantu ukusukela ukuguqulwa okuvela kwi-ellagitannins kuxhomekeke kwi-microbiota esiswini. Kukho iibhaktheriya ezithile ezichaphazelekayo koluguquko kwaye zahluka phakathi kwabantu apho abanye banamazinga aphezulu, aphantsi okanye engafumanekiyo. Imithombo yokutya iyahluka ngokwamanqanaba abo e-ellagitannins. Kungoko izibonelelo ezinokubakho zeellagitannins zahluka ukusuka komnye umntu ukuya komnye.

I-Urolithin A, B kunye ne-Urolithin i-8-Methyl Ether

Urolithin A no-B nezongezo

I-Urolithin A izongezo kunye ne-Urolithin B izongezo zifumaneka ngokulula kwimarike njengeellagitannin enobutyebi bomthombo wokutya. Urolithin A izongezelelo nazo ziyafumaneka ngokulula. Kakhulu iirharnati zongezwayo zithengisiwe kakhulu kwaye zasetyenziswa ngempumelelo. Ezi zongezo zidityaniswa ukusuka kweziqhamo okanye amandongomane kwaye zenziwa kwifom yolwelo okanye yomgubo.

Ngenxa yantlukwano kwi-ellagitannins kwiindidi zokutya ezahlukeneyo, abathengi be-urolithin bayithenga bayibeka emthonjeni umthombo wokutya. Oku kuyasebenza xa kufunwa i-urolithin B powder okanye izixhasi zolwelo.

Izifundo ezimbalwa zekliniki yabantu ezenziwa nge-urolithin I-powder okanye i-B azichazanga iziphumo ezibi ezivela kulawulo lwezixhasi.

Kuphi kwaye uyithenga njani i-urolithin A no-B

Xa ucinga ukusebenzisa iurolithin Thenga okanye urolithin B uyithenge ngobulumko ngokufunda ileyibhile ngononophelo ukuqokelela ulwazi olwaneleyo. Jonga umthombo wokutya osetyenzisiweyo kunye nabantu ekujongwe kubo kunye nosetyenziso.

I-Urolithin Isongezo sithathwe njengekhuselekileyo nguLawulo lokutya kunye neziyobisi (FDA). Nangona kunjalo, imithombo yolongezelelo evela kubathengisi abavunyiweyo.

Uninzi lwabavelisi luya kubonisa indlela izongezelelo eziza kusetyenziswa. Kodwa ngokubanzi izongezelelo ze-urolithin zisetyenziselwe ukutya okuthile okufana nobisi lobisi.

Iirolithin ii-supplements njengazo naziphi na ezinye izinto zokuxhasa zingaxutywa kwi-intanethi. Nangona kunjalo, phaphama kakhulu ukufumana ezona zibonelelo zihle kwezongeziweyo.

Soloko ulandela imiyalelo yomenzi kwiziphumo ezilungileyo ezivela kwizongezo ze-urolithin ezikhethiweyo.

Ucaphulo
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  2. U-Espín, uJuan Carlos; ILarrosa, Mar; UGarcía-Conesa, uMaría Teresa; UTomás-Barberán, uFrancisco (2013). "Ukubaluleka kwebhayilo ye-Urolithins, iGut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derives Metabolites: Ubungqina ukuza kuthi ga ngoku". Ulwabiwo-olusekelwe kwiMicrotheli eSebenzayo. Ngo-2013: 270418. doi: 1155/2013/270418. I-ISSN1741-427X. PMC 3679724. PMID 23781257.
  3. I-Ryu, i-Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; UAndreux, uPénélope A; IKatsyuba, Elena; UMoullan, uNorman; UNicolet-dit-Félix, Amandine A; Williams, Evan G; Jha, Pooja; Sasso, Giuseppe Lo (ngo-2016). "I-Urolithin" Inika amandla emithanjeni kwaye yandise ixesha lobomi kwi-C elegans kunye nokonyusa ukusebenza kwemisipha kwiintonga ". Nature Medicine. 22 (8): 879-888. doi: 1038 / nm.4132. I-PMID 27400265.
  4. I-Seeram, i-NP, i-Aronson, i-WJ, i-Zhang, i-Y., iHenning, i-SM, i-Moro, uA., ULee, uR.,… u-Heber, D. (2007). I-Pomegranate Ellagitannin-Derives Metabolites Inhibit Costate Cancer Cancer kunye neNdawo yeKhaya kwi-Mouse Prostate Gland. Ijenali yeChemicals yezoLimo kunye nokutya, 55 (19), 7732-7737.doi: 10.1021 / jf071303g.
  5. Lee, G., Park, J-S., Lee, E--J., Ahn, J.-H., & Kim, H.S. (2018). Inkqubo yokuchasana nokuvuvukala kunye ne-antioxidant ye-urolithin B kwi-microglia esebenze. I-Phytomedicine. doi: 10.1016 / j.phymed.2018.06.032.
  6. Urolithin A.,Urolithin B,I-Urolithin i-8-Methyl Ether

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